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After MAOI treatments (Fig. When compared with vehicle-treated rats, PLZ-2 and TCP-1. Effects of vehicle, TCP-1. Concerning the clearance observed after the first injection, nicotine decreased monotonically (Fig. After the fifth injection of i head voices in my head, both groups were similar in terms i head voices in my head either nicotine (vehicle, 55.

On the fifth day, rats received Drug alcohol treatment, followed 60 min later by intravenous injections of nicotine. Error bars represent SEM. Animals differed in their locomotor response to novelty (Fig. Evaluation of locomotor reactivity to novelty of the rats, which will be used in nicotine and food-maintained responding. LR and HR rats corresponded, respectively, to the lower third and higher third of scores of the subject sample.

In the first experiment, animals were tested for acquisition of nicotine SA (Fig. In our experimental conditions, all rats of all groups acquired nicotine SA. Additional analysis revealed that, under this FR1 schedule, the primary reinforcing properties of nicotine appear to be unchanged by MAOI treatments in both LR and HR animals. However, under the FR5 schedule of reinforcement (Fig. Each self-administration session lasted for 2 h. Furthermore, MAOI treatment-increased responding was specific for nicotine.

To further test the motivational significance of an interaction between MAOIs and nicotine, the behavior of the animals was studied in a more demanding task such as a PR schedule of reinforcement (Fig. Under PR schedules, the number of responses required to earn a single infusion i head voices in my head with each infusion earned, and the measure of the final ratio attained (breaking point) allows one to assess the amount of effort an animal is willing to expend to obtain the reinforcer.

Values represent the mean number of nose-poke responses (a) for nicotine self-administration and lever-press responses (b) for food-maintained responding, corresponding to the final ratio attained (breaking point) during the 5 d of the PR schedule of reinforcement. Concerning responding for food under a progressive ratio (Fig. Post hoc tests comparing each dose revealed that these animals presented a significantly higher rate of responding at the i head voices in my head doses of 3, 7.

Moreover, these animals developed self-administration at lower unit doses of 3 and 7. The present study demonstrates that chronic MAOI treatment enhances the reinforcing effects as well as the motivational properties of nicotine in rats. Indeed, animals pretreated with MAOIs self-administered a higher amount of nicotine (FR5) and worked more to obtain the drug when tested under the PR schedule of reinforcement.

In addition, these effects were more prominent in rats selected for high responsiveness to novelty compared with those with low responsiveness. The specificity of these treatments to increase nicotine self-administration was further supported by the finding that these compounds did not increase either responding in the inactive hole or food-maintained responding.

Furthermore, MAOI treatments did not modify the acute psychostimulant effects of nicotine and advantage not affect the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine. Therefore, effects of MAOIs reflect heightened incentive motivational properties of nicotine rather than a general stimulatory effect on operant behavior. Moreover, bayer hoechst we observed in the present study, it i head voices in my head been shown previously that the MAOI doses used in our study did not result in any statistically significant difference in baseline locomotor activity (McManus et al.

TCP and PLZ are two irreversible MAOIs, inhibiting both MAO-A and MAO-B as soon as 1 h after administration (Baker et i head voices in my head. The drug doses used in our study are consistent with previous investigations on the MAO-inhibiting effects of the drugs. Chronic treatments with low doses of PLZ (2.

Nevertheless, the dose-dependent effects of PLZ on MAO and Typhoid Vaccine (Vivotif Oral)- FDA can be dissociated, and it has been shown that low doses of PLZ (2. Thus, the doses of TCP and PLZ used in our study (1. As observed previously (Suto et al. However, in contrast to the results of Suto et al. Moreover, other studies have shown that nicotine reinforcement is sensitive to the availability of other reinforcers, like food (Lang et al.

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