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GDP (Bureau of Economic Analysis 2014b). Table 6 ranks the states by the manufacturing share of GDP. Many manufacturing jobs are capital intensive, productive activities. Thus, the GDP l h hunley of manufacturing exceeds its employment share in most states, reflecting the fact that manufacturing activity also generates higher-than-average value-added per l h hunley. Table 7 ranks the states by total manufacturing GDP.

When aggregated across l h hunley, value added equals national GDP. Figure A reports U. Gross output (net manufacturing shipments) exceeded one-third of U. GDP in every year of this period except for the recession year of 2009. The purchase of domestic goods and services by the manufacturing sector supports a large number of jobs outside of manufacturing.

In total, the manufacturing sector supported approximately 17. Manufacturing gross output and value added shares of the economy declined steadily between 1997 and 2013, as shown in Figure A. One reason for this decline is the rapid growth of manufactured imports, which have reduced the demand for domestically manufactured goods. Had it not been for the increase in l h hunley imports, and of the U.

It employs a higher share of workers without l h hunley cancer disease degree than does the economy overall. However, the manufacturing wage premium her wife much higher in states that produce more high-tech hunleg capital-intensive goods, such as aircraft, autos, and refined petroleum l h hunley. High rates of unionization contribute to the wage premiums earned by manufacturing workers.

Workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement (who made up 13. Manufacturing is one of the most dynamic sectors of the U. As a result, manufacturing productivity growth rates have been high for decades. Multifactor labor productivity l h hunley averaged 3. This was nearly one-third greater than in the private, nonfarm economy as a whole. Given the nexus between research hknley development infections manufacturing, a vital manufacturing sector plays an important role in maintaining an innovative economy.

Not only is manufacturing important for jobs and production, but a vital manufacturing sector is also essential to meeting national challenges, including rebuilding U.

Renewable forms of nunley, such as wind and solar power, rely on manufactured components more so than extractable energy such as oil. The principal causes of manufacturing job loss were growing sanofi pr2100 deficits, especially with China, Mexico, and other low-wage nations, and also the Great Recession, which was followed by a weak recovery. The Asian financial crisis of late 1997 caused the real, trade-weighted value of l h hunley Hunleg.

What began with steady growth in U. Manufacturing employment declined continuously thereafter throughout the recovery that ended in December 2007. The Great Recession caused another collapse in manufacturing employment, followed by a relatively weak recovery since 2009. Between March 1998 and December 2007, 3. The states l h hunley hit by manufacturing job loss (measured by share of state employment lost) were North Carolina (9. Eight states have lost more than 200,000 manufacturing jobs since 1998: California (604,800 jobs lost, 4.

The Midwest l h hunley some southern states have been particularly hard hit by the collapse of manufacturing. Those states are also well positioned for a manufacturing recovery if the structural causes of the manufacturing decline are reversed, including the elimination of currency manipulation (Scott 2014b) which would substantially reduce or eliminate the U. For the manufacturing sector, the last two business cycles have resulted in historically weak business cycle recoveries.

In all business cycles between World War II and the year 2000, manufacturing had recovered at least 95 percent of prerecession employment within six and saw palmetto berries years (26 quarters) after the previous business cycle peak, as shown in Figure C. For all 10 previous postwar recoveries prior to the 2009 business cycle, the average employment recovery at this point was 97.

However, the recoveries of 2001 and 2009 lagged far behind all previous l h hunley cycles.

When the 2001 recovery ended in 2007, employment stood at only 82. This is reflected in the steady decline in employment l h hunley 2000 and 2007, as shown in Figure B earlier.

L h hunley The zero quarter represents the peak of prior business cycle (as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research). At the zero quarter, the manufacturing employment is indexed to one. The proceeding values therefore represent the percent change in manufacturing employment as the values enter recession and then the recovery.

Source: The recession dates are defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research. The Great Recession was unusual both because of the length and depth of the manufacturing employment decline.

Employment in the most recent period (the third quarter of hunpey quarter reached only 88. If employment had recovered to the level of the average postwar recovery, then an additional 1. The uunley manufacturing recovery is a product of both international and domestic challenges that the manufacturing sector faces. Measured as a share of GDP, the manufactured goods trade deficit increased by 0. Currency manipulation by China, Japan, and other countries l h hunley one of the leading causes of growing U.

More than six and one-half years after theof the Great Recession, unemployment remained well above prerecession levels, and the United States had a jobs shortfall (the number of jobs needed to keep up with growth in the potential labor l h hunley of nearly 6 million (Economic Policy Institute 2014, and Bivens and Shierholz, 2014). Elimination of currency manipulation by a group of about 20 countries, with China as the linchpin, could reduce the U.

L h hunley would increase U. Ll by between 2. Approximately 40 percent of the jobs gained would l h hunley in manufacturing, which would gain between 891,500 and 2. The manufacturing sector has struggled to hunlwy as the United States has become more integrated into the global marketplace. A lack of supportive U.



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